Floods Threaten Mohenjo Daro, UNESCO World Heritage Site

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Floods Threaten Mohenjo Daro, UNESCO World Heritage Site

The UNESCO-protected site of Mohenjo Daro, a major settlement of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), is being threatened by flooding. The government of Sindh is trying to salvage the ruins.

The ruins show evidence of remarkable civil engineering and urban planning tactics. They have a complex layout of rectilinear buildings ordered on a grid conception.


In Pakistan, where an unprecedented monsoon season has killed hundreds and displaced millions, floods threaten to destroy a famed archaeological site dating back 4,500 years. The ruins of Mohenjo Daro are located in southern Sindh province near the Indus River and are considered among the best-preserved urban settlements in South Asia.

The historic city was built about 2500 BCE and was a major city during the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation. It was also one of the first major cities in the world, contemporaneous with civilizations such as those of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete, and Caral-Supe.

According to Ahsan Abbasi, the site’s chief official, the rains have wrought damage on the ruins. But the historical site’s “Buddhist stupa” – a large hemispherical structure associated with worship, meditation, and burial – is intact. The UNESCO-listed site also has an elaborate drainage system, which is critical in preventing flooding.

Changing Path of the Indus River

The Indus River, which flows through the mountains of Western Tibet, India, and Pakistan, is one of the oldest rivers on Earth. It has a 2,000-mile-long course, and its banks and delta have changed dramatically over time.

The River Indus has formed 45 million years ago when the Indian and Eurasian plates slid together. Its path has changed as it has shifted westward and eastward, cutting through the Himalayas.

It is a major trade route, and its importance to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is well-known. The Indus River is also an important habitat for many species of plants and animals, which require conservation and protection.

Mohenjo Daro, a large settlement in the Indus Valley that was built around 2600 BCE, was destroyed in floods. It may now be removed from the world heritage list.

Societies Change Over Time

As we know, societies are in a state of dynamic change. They are constantly adapting to new environmental conditions, incorporating new ideas, technologies, and institutions into their systems of government and business.

However, what speed and form these changes take is unpredictable. The rate of social change can vary among societies, from very rapid to fairly slow.

Some people believe that society changes as nature does, by evolving from simple organisms into more complex creatures. Other people think that it changes because of conflict.

Inequalities based on race, religion, class, gender, and more, create dissatisfaction and anger. These emotions can drive groups to fight for change.

Societies are also affected by the population of a nation, which changes both in number and composition. This can occur through migration or increased birth rates.

Human Intervention

Mohenjo Daro, a UNESCO World Heritage Site situated in southern Sindh province near the Indus River, is considered among the best preserved urban settlements of South Asia. However, due to erosion and improper restoration, the ruins are now at risk of being removed from the list.

The city’s chief official told Dawn news outlet that the rains have weakened the protective covering around the ruins, and they are prone to damage. The ancient settlement was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980 and it is believed to have been one of the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The city has also been known for its elaborate drainage and water management systems, which helped reduce the amount of standing water in the area during floods. During the monsoon, Mohenjo Daro was not inundated and had less standing water than Larkana, which is 30 kilometers (18 miles) away from it.


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